Financial audits are intended to provide some assurance to the public that a company’s financial statements are presented fairly and accurately, in accordance with the established or stated criteria. The public may include the shareholders of the company, debtors such as bondholders, banks or other financial institutions and some government entities. In general, a financial … Continue reading Financial Audits – Basic Tests
Perpetuity Definition: A perpetuity is an annuity that provides payments indefinitely. Since this type of annuity is unending, its sum or future value cannot be calculated. Examples of perpetuity: Local governments set aside monies so that funds will be available on a regular basis for cultural activities. A children’s charity club set up a fund … Continue reading Perpetuities – Definition & Calculation
Definition: Standard deviation is a measure of how far apart the data are from the average of the data. If all the observations are close to their average then the standard deviation will be small. How to calculate standard deviation:Suppose that an investor has $600 to invest and is considering investing all of it in … Continue reading Standard Deviation — Definition & Calculation
An economy is said to be characterized by information asymmetry when some parties to business transactions may have an information advantage over others. Types of information asymmetry The first is adverse selection. Adverse selection occurs because some persons, such as managers and other insiders know more about the current condition and future prospects of the … Continue reading Information Asymmetry
Bonds can be purchased at any time. To value the bond, the procedures differ depending on whether the bond is purchased on the date interest is regularly paid (interest date) or whether it is purchased “between interest dates”. How to calculate the Purchase Price of a Bond on an Interest Date Formula to be used: … Continue reading Bond Valuation — Calculation
Compound interest means that the interest will include interest calculated on interest. For example, if an amount of $5,000 is invested for two years and the interest rate is 10%, compounded yearly: • At the end of the first year the interest would be ($5,000 * 0.10) or $500 • In the second year the … Continue reading Calculating Compound Interest
When we borrow money we are expected to pay for using it – this is called interest. There are three components to calculate simple interest: principal (the amount of money borrowed), interest rate and time. Formula for calculating simple interest: I = Prt Where, I = interest P = principal r = interest rate (per … Continue reading Simple Interest – Definition and Calculation
There are various ways to value a stock, such as checking its earnings, its dividend or its price to earnings ratio. By using these measurements you may estimate how a stock should be priced. If you find a stock whose measurements indicate its price should be higher, you may have found a ‘cheap’ stock, then … Continue reading What is Value Investing?
Growth investing is focusing on a company that has demonstrated a track record of high or emerging growth. If a company has a stock price that has gone up year-on-year over 3 years then that stock would be a target for growth investors. Even on a shorter timeline, if a stock has gone up in … Continue reading What is Growth Investing?